Causes and Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting

Nausea is an unpleasant feeling of discomfort or unease in the stomach. It often happens before vomiting.

Nausea and vomiting do not constitute a standalone condition. However, there are many possible causes of these symptoms, including motion sickness, infections, migraines, food poisoning, gallbladder disease, intense pain, surgery, pregnancy, indigestion, and emotional stress.

Vomiting in young children is common. Reflux can be caused by a number of things, but it can also indicate a more serious problem, such as intestinal obstruction or meningitis.

In this article, learn more about the causes of nausea and vomiting and what to do if they happen.

Causes

There are many possible causes of nausea and vomiting, including those below:

Pregnancy

Nausea and vomiting are common during pregnancy due to hormonal changes. People often call this morning sickness, although it can happen at any time of the day.

The symptoms usually start within the first 9 weeks of pregnancy and often disappear by week 14. However, they can sometimes persist throughout the pregnancy.

Severe nausea and vomiting, called hyperemesis gravidarum, affects about 3% of pregnancies. If there is a risk of dehydration, it may be necessary to seek medical treatment and spend time in the hospital.

Central nervous system

Many diseases and conditions that affect the central nervous system (CNS) have nausea as a symptom.

Examples include:

  • migraine
  • seizures
  • tumors
  • stroke
  • Head trauma
  • Meningitis
  • hydrocephalus

Experts do not know why many CNS problems cause nausea and vomiting.

Ear problems

Related to CNS disorders are inner ear (vestibular) problems, which can affect a person’s sense of balance. This effect can lead to vertigo, nausea, and vomiting.

Conditions that affect the inner ear include:

  • Motion sickness: Some modes of transport and fairground rides can trigger this.
  • Labyrinthitis: This inner ear infection usually occurs due to a virus.
  • Benign positional vertigo: a small movement, such as moving the head, can trigger a spinning sensation.
  • This long-term ear condition can affect a person’s balance and cause dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss.

Pelvic and abdominal conditions

Many pelvic and abdominal conditions have nausea as a symptom. These conditions can affect the gastrointestinal tract, the reproductive system, the liver, and other parts of the body, depending on the cause.

The following are just a few examples:

  • Hepatitis
  • Pancreatitis
  • Obstruction or irritation in the digestive system.
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • Kidney disease
  • Gallbladder disease
  • Infections, such as gastroenteritis
  • Constipation
  • Menstruation

Anxiety, depression, and stress

Psychological conditions that can induce nausea include:

  • Anxiety and related disorders
  • Depression
  • Anorexia nervosa
  • Bulimia nervosa

Alongside nausea, anxiety can lead to lightheadedness, diarrhea, and frequent urination.

Cancer

Some types of cancer can cause nausea and vomiting. These include:

  • A brain tumor
  • It is cancer that causes a blockage in the bowels.
  • Cancer anywhere in the gastrointestinal system.
  • A tumor in the appendix or pancreas
  • Lung cancer
  • Ovarian cancer

Cancer therapy

Nausea and vomiting are also common side effects of cancer therapy.

Medication can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. Possible complications include a loss of appetite, damage to the esophagus, dehydration, malnutrition, and the reopening of surgical incisions.

The cancer treatments that most commonly cause nausea are:

Chemotherapy

The severity of symptoms will depend on various factors, including the type and dosage of treatment and how the person’s body responds to it.

Radiation therapy

The risk is higher when treatment involves the brain, liver, or gastrointestinal tract. It also increases with higher doses.

People may have an increased risk of severe symptoms from chemotherapy or radiation therapy if they trust the source:

  • I experienced severe and frequent nausea and vomiting during my previous treatment.
  • are female
  • are under 50 years of age.
  • have constipation
  • are taking certain medications, such as opioids.
  • I have anxiety
  • Have an infection
  • I have kidney disease.
  • They may have an electrolyte or fluid imbalance in their body.

Cyclical vomiting syndrome

This rare condition usually occurs in children, but can also affect adults. The individual will have episodes of nausea and vomiting for no clear reason. They will then feel well but may have another episode, perhaps a month later.

The cause is unclear, but there may be a link with migraines.

Other possible causes include:

  • Stress or anxiety
  • Dietary factors
  • Recurrent infections
  • menstruation
  • excessive physical exercise.
  • Lack of sleep

In children

Common causes of vomiting in young children include:

  • reflux
  • Minor intestinal infections
  • Chest, urine, or other infections
  • A food allergy or intolerance
  • food poisoning
  • Some serious conditions, such as meningitis and appendicitis,

People often link teething with vomiting, but experts do not consider there to be a link.

When to see a doctor

Nausea and vomiting are usually temporary symptoms that go away on their own, but they can sometimes indicate a more serious condition.

It is important to seek medical advice if the following symptoms also occur:

  • I had severe stomach pain.
  • There was blood in the vomit.
  • Vomiting that lasts longer than 24 hours
  • I have a severe headache.
  • with a stiff neck
  • dehydration

Treating the underlying cause may also relieve nausea and vomiting.

Young children

Vomiting is common in infants and young children, and it is often not a cause for concern.

However, parents or caregivers should seek medical attention if vomiting continues for more than a day or two, or if any of the following symptoms are present:

Treatment

The treatment for nausea and vomiting will depend on the cause, but some medications — known as antiemetics — can help manage the symptoms.

There are several over-the-counter options. If these are not effective, a doctor may prescribe a stronger drug.

People should take care when using any medications and always:

  • read the directions on the package
  • follow the instructions regarding how much to take and when
  • check with a doctor before using any new medication
  • seek medical advice if they cannot keep the medication down

Antihistamines

Antihistamines may relieve the symptoms of nausea when it results from motion sickness, migraines, or vertigo.

Examples include dimenhydrinate (Dramamine) and meclizine hydrochloride (Dramamine Less Drowsy).

To avoid motion sickness when traveling, it is best to take these drugs just before the trip.

Side effects may include:

  • drowsiness
  • dry eyes
  • dry mouth

People who take sedatives, muscle relaxants, or sleeping pills should check with their doctor before using antihistamines.

Other remedies

There are also treatments specific to

  • morning sickness
  • sickness due to cancer treatment.
  • gastrointestinal problems due to diabetes and other conditions.
  • Cyclic vomiting syndrome

A doctor can advise on suitable options.

Herbal and alternative remedies

Some people use alternative remedies, such as:

  • Acupuncture
  • Ginger powder or tea
  • vitamin B-6

Lifestyle tips

It is not always possible to avoid nausea and vomiting, but people may be able to prevent or manage symptoms by:

  • To avoid vomiting, drink plenty of water and take sips as needed.
  • eating regular meals and avoiding heavy, oily food drinking ginger or peppermint tea
  • Sitting upright after eating and letting in some fresh, cool air to avoid reflux
  • avoiding clothing that is too tight
  • To limit the risk of illness, wash your hands frequently.
  • If you have frequent and unexplained nausea and vomiting, you should visit a doctor.

Outlook

Nausea and vomiting are common symptoms of many diseases and conditions. These symptoms often go away without treatment, but various options can help prevent or manage them.

Anyone with nausea and vomiting that is severe, persistent, causes dehydration, or occurs alongside additional symptoms should see a doctor.

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