Financial Performance: Understanding The Concepts And Its Areas

What is Financial Performance?

A full review of a company’s entire standing in categories such as assets, liabilities, equity, expenses, revenue, and overall profitability is known as financial performance. It is calculated using a variety of business-related algorithms that enable users to calculate precise details about a company’s prospective effectiveness.

Financial performance is analyzed by internal users to determine the well-being and standing of their respective firms, among other benchmarks.

Financial performance is assessed for external users to determine prospective investment opportunities and whether a company is worth its time.

Financial statement analysis is required before calculations on specific financial indicators that determine overall performance can be completed.

Understanding Financial Performance

Trade creditors, bondholders, investors, employees, and management are only a few of the stakeholders in a company. Each group has a vested interest in monitoring a company’s financial success.

The financial performance of a corporation is determined by how well it earns revenues and manages its assets, obligations, and the financial interests of its stakeholders and investors.  There are various ways to assess financial success, but they should all be seen as a whole.

Total unit sales, as well as line items like revenue from operations, operating income, or cash flow from operations, might be employed.

Furthermore, the analyst or investor may wish to dig further into the financial records in order to find any lowering debt or margin growth rates. This is a focus of the Six Sigma methodology. 

Areas of Financial Performance Analysis

Financial analysts often assess the firm’s production and productivity performance (total business performance), profitability, liquidity, working capital, fixed assets, fund flow performance, and social performance. Various financial ratio analyses include

  • Working capital Analysis
  • Financial structure Analysis
  • Activity Analysis
  • Profitability Analysis

What is Financial Statement Analysis?

Financial statement analysis is a process conducted on organizations by internal and external parties to gain a better understanding of how a company is performing. The process consists of analyzing four critical financial statements in a business.

The four statements that are extensively studied are a company’s balance sheet, income statement, cash flow statement, and annual report.

1. Balance Sheet

In financial statement analysis, an organization’s balance sheet is looked at to determine the operational efficiency of a business.

Firstly, asset analysis is conducted and is primarily focused on more important assets such as cash and cash equivalents, inventory, and PP&E, which help predict future growth.

Next, long-term and short-term liabilities are examined in order to determine if there are any future liquidity problems or debt-repayment that the organization may not be able to cover.

Lastly, a company’s owner’s equity section is inspected, allowing the user to determine the share capital distributed inside and outside of the organization.

2. Income Statement

In financial statement analysis, a business’s income statement is investigated to determine overall present and future profitability.

Examining a company’s previous and current fiscal years income statement enables the user to determine if there is a trend in revenue and expenses, which in turn, shows the potential to increase future profitability.

3. Cash Flow Statement

A cash flow statement is critical in a financial statement analysis in order to identify where the money is generated and spent by the organization.

If one segment of the business is experiencing large outflows, in order to stay viable, the company must be generating inflows through financing or sales of assets.

4. Annual Report

The last statement, the annual report, provides qualitative information which is useful to further analyze a company’s overall operational and financing activities.

The annual report consists of all the statements listed above but adds additional insights and narratives on critical figures within the organization.

The additional insights and narratives within the annual report include an extensive narrative breakdown of the various business segments, benchmarks, and overall growth.

As a whole, financial performance analysis is critical whether it is conducted for internal or external use because it helps determine a business’s potential future growth, structure, effectiveness, and most importantly, performance.

Measuring Financial Performance

Through a financial performance analysis, specific financial formulas and ratios are calculated, which, when compared to historical and industry metrics, provide insight into a company’s financial condition and performance.

When calculating financial performance, there are seven critical ratios that are extensively used in the business world to assist and evaluate a company’s overall performance.

1. Gross Profit Margin

The gross profit margin is a ratio that measures the remaining amount of revenue that is left after deducting the cost of sales.

The ratio is useful because it indicates as a percentage the portion of each sales dollar that can be applied to cover a company’s operating expenses.

Gross Profit Margin

2. Working Capital

The working capital measurement is used to determine an organization’s liquid net assets available to fund day-to-day operations.

Determining liquidity in a business is important because it indicates whether a company owns resources that can quickly be converted to cash if needed.

Working Capital

3. Current Ratio

The current ratio is a liquidity ratio that helps a business determine if it owns enough current assets to cover or pay for its current liabilities.

Current Ratio

4. Inventory Turnover Ratio

The inventory turnover ratio is an efficiency ratio that is used to measure the number of times a company sells its average inventory in a fiscal year.

The ratio is beneficial because it allows the organization to easily determine if their inventory is in demand, obsolete, or if they are carrying too much.

Inventory Turnover Ratio

4. Leverage

Leverage is an equity multiplier that is calculated by a business to illustrate how much debt is actually being used to buy assets.

The leverage multiplier remains at one if all assets are financed by equity, but it begins to increase as more and more debt is used to purchase assets.


5. Return on Assets

Return on assets, as the name suggests, helps an organization determine how well its assets are being employed to become more profitable.

If the assets are not being used effectively, the company’s return on assets sum will be below.

Return on Assets

6. Return on Equity

Similar to return on assets, the return on equity is a profitability ratio that is used to analyze the equity effectiveness, which, in turn, earns profits for investors.

A higher return on equity suggests that investors are earning at a much more efficient rate, which is more profitable to the business as a whole.


A Financial Performance Report is a review of a company’s financial performance that reports the company’s financial health and assists investors and stakeholders in making investment decisions.

A company’s financial performance is dependent on figures. But, in the end, it creates a perception of the company’s soundness.

Any serious investor wishing to correctly understand and value a firm should conduct a financial analysis of the company’s financial statements, as detailed in annual reports and Form K-10s.

It’s also crucial to remember that financial performance is a reflection of the past and is never a precise predictor of the future. It doesn’t exist in a vacuum, either.

When assessing a company’s financial performance, it should constantly be compared to similar firms, the industry as a whole, and the company’s own history.


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